Tuesday, August 14, 2012

< V > TOEFL Vocabulary (152)

Optical (adjective)
of, relating to, or being objects that emit light in the visible range of frequencies  In 1936, Einstein calculated that an observer on Earth, given the correct line of sight,
might see multiple images of a single, distant object—a cosmic optical illusion, so to

Optimism (noun) 
a tendency to expect a favorable outcome or to dwell on hopeful aspects
An atmosphere of optimism and a promise of prosperity among the settlers of
Chattanooga caused the city to prosper from 2,000 in 1865 to 12,000 in 1877.

Optional (adjective) 
not imposed on one by authority
It is learned that the writing process has a minimum of four stages and that there is an
optional fifth stage of writing. 

Oratorical (adjective) 
of or relating to the art of public speaking
As the boycott continued during 1956, King gained national prominence as a result of his
exceptional oratorical skills and personal courage. 

Orbit (adjective) 
of or relating to a course, process, or journey that ends where it began or repeats itself
19th century astronomers made very careful observations of Mercury's orbital
parameters but could not adequately explain those using Newtonian mechanics. 

Organism (noun) 
something resembling a living thing in its complexity of 
structure or functions
Researchers have learned that many different organisms can be conditioned to respond
to practically any stimuli such as lights, sounds, or tastes.

Originate (verb) 
to have as one’s home, place, or origin
Sulfates, which originate primarily in coal fired power plants, started rising around

Ornament (noun) 
the act of furnishing with decorations
Even department stores in some non-Christian countries are decorated with ornaments
during the Christmas season.

Oscillate (verb) 
to move back and forth with a steady rhythm
There is a special critical initial strength such that the field cannot decide whether to
evaporate away or collapse to form a black hole. Instead it oscillates increasingly
rapidly, performing an infinite number of oscillations in a finite time. 

Osmotic (adjective) 
relating to the diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane typically separating a 
solvent and a solution that tends to equalize their concentrations
Since saltwater fishes have blood with a lower concentration of salts than the
surrounding seawater, osmotic pressure tends to force water out of the body fluids and
to raise the internal salt concentration.

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