Sunday, August 12, 2012

< V > TOEFL Vocabulary (52)

Contender, noun (contenders) 
For example, a contender is someone who takes part in a competition.
Her trainer said yesterday that she would be a strong contender for a place in Britain’s 
Olympic squad.
Retard, verb (retards, retarding, retarded) 
delay, decelerate, detain, hang up, mire, set back, slacken, slow (up or down)
For example, if something retards a process, or the development of something, it makes it
happen more slowly. (Formal) 
Continuing violence will retard negotiations over the country’s future.

Extinction, noun   
For example, the extinction of a species of animal or plant is the death of all its remaining
living members.  
An operation is beginning to try to save a species of crocodile from extinction.

Encroach, verb (encroaches, encroaching, encroached) 
trespass, entrench, infringe, invade
For example, if one thing encroaches on another, the first thing spreads or becomes
stronger, and slowly begins to restrict the power, range, or effectiveness of the second.
Any attempt to encroach upon presidential prerogatives in this domain was quickly and
firmly resisted.

Spread, verb (spreads, spreading, spread) 
circulate, diffuse, disperse, disseminate, distribute, propagate, radiate, strew
For example, if something spreads or is spread by people, it gradually reaches or affects a
larger and larger area or more and more people.
News of the large earthquake quickly spread across the nation.  

 Restrict, verb (restricts, restricting, restricted) 
limit, bar, circumscribe, confine, delimit, delimitate
For example, if you restrict something, you put a limit on it in order to prevent it from 
becoming too great. 
The French, I believe, restrict Japanese imports to a maximum of three percent or their 
 Presidential, adjective  
For example, Presidential activities or things relate or belong to a president.
There are several presidential candidates.

Domain, noun (domains)  
field, dominion, province, sphere, terrain, territory, walk
For example, a domain is a particular field of thought, activity, or interest, especially one
over which someone has control, influence, or rights. (Formal) 
This information should be in the public domain.

Resist, verb (resists, resisting, resisted) 
buck, combat, contest, dispute, duel, fight, oppose, repel, traverse, withstand;  if you resist
something such as a change, you refuse to accept it and try to prevent it.
They resisted our attempt to modernize the distribution of books.

Candidate, noun (candidates) 
applicant, aspirant, hopeful, seeker
For example, a candidate is someone who is being considered for a position, For example
someone who is running in an election or applying for a job.
He is a candidate for the office of Governor. 

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